Types Publications

Reducing the shadow economy through electronic payments

This report analyses the shadow economy in eight Central and Southern European countries. It estimates the potential impact of various regulations that, by replacing cash with electronic payments, or by increasing the share of registered consumer cash transactions, may lead…

Credit apartheid, migrants, mines and money

Various agents – rural patriarchs, traders, government authorities, appliance retailers – have used techniques to keep wages beyond migrants’ control. Paradoxically, similar techniques have, on occasion, been eagerly embraced by migrants themselves, who know that these resources will need to…

The ethics of payments: Paper, plastic, or bitcoin?

Individuals and businesses make numerous payments every day. They sometimes have choices about what forms of payment to make or accept, and at other times are effectively forced to use a particular form. Often there is an asymmetric power relationship…

NREGA wage payments: Can we bank on the banks?

The government of India has shifted from cash payment of wages under the renamed Mahatma Gandhi Employment Guarantee Scheme to settlement through bank accounts. This has been done in order to prevent defrauding of workers and to give them greater…